Why is that so many people continue to see the world as a system of stereotypes. Sexist, racists, religious, class, biological, technological. They cannot see that the universe is so complex and that it does not exist in stereotypes and clearly defined systems, rather it’s like a large interconnected organism . They don’t know how to look at the universe and see its complexity so they reduce an infinite amount of elements to a number of cultural, religious, and scientific symbols and facts which they don’t have to change and which they can understand and they decide to ignore or simplify anything that is beyond their ability to define. It’s nothing more than an inability to perceive and accept complexities of the universe. And we think that the fact that we cannot perceive the true size, scope and complexities of the universe entitles us to limit the universe and give it some finite structure which will hold its borders in place. Our limited senses cannot even begin to anticipate what physical realities, chemical compositions, physical and non physical structures exist outside our spectrum of perception yet we define the entire universe according to our own comfort zone thus excluding what we find uncomfortable. De Bono suggests that errors in thinking are errors in perception. Perception or starting points of arguments cannot be proved logically, regardless of how logical you are, your conclusions will be determined by your starting point, not by the excellence of your logic. Logic from a wrong perception can give the appearance of a truth with a resulting action that can be dangerous. Logic cannot be better than perception. Unless the starting assumption about what the world is or should be or can be changes, logic will not change or create a new solution. He suggests that three things can improve perception. Attitude, Perceptual tools, Perceptual maps. Attention is a key element in improving perception. If we don’t direct our attention, we only see the familiar patterns. We have to set directions in which to look, and we have to consider possibilities and alternatives beyond our expectation, and we have to determine what is making us see the world the way we do. It is important to observe what your mind does when it is attempting to define or perceive something and determine what is the first thing that comes to your mind, then pull it apart and say why I have thought about it this way. How could I think about it in a different way.  You see a house and you think a box. An architect does not see a house nor does he think a house, nor does he think a box. He sees an area of space which can be isolated from the rest of the environment around it in an infinite number of ways, with a large number of materials, because he has trained his mind to perceive space in this way. A biologist might see it as an area of air, clean or polluted depending on what surrounds it, or anything else depending on what branch of science he or she is studying. We have to do the same with people and places. Never assume what someone is. Because you will be wrong because you cannot know the truth until you discover it for yourself. What you assume is an assumption and not the truth. And decisions based on assumptions are dangerous. What is even more dangerous is when you join a group and follow assumptions which are not even yours. Learn, read, investigate, question, look for new ways to see things and then make your decisions.

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